Tourism, she adds, is the commodification of the experience that allows people to fulfil their fantasies and set free bodily pleasures Cabezas, You are required to get off the boat, though there is an old church nearby that you can visit if the mood strikes you. In exchange, he promised to share his life story with us. When I demanded that an officer inform me why he was arresting my Cuban friend who had been walking with me, I was told that it was to protect me from an inevitable robbery. Thousands of ISIS fighters sit in prison. In fact, it is clear that the initiation of capitalist market relations has served only to commodify the bodies of the pingueros, to turn relationships into transactions, to introduce a poverty and a materialism heretofore absent from the cultural landscape, and to force formerly more flexible sexual and gender identities toward rigid and more easily marketable categories. Lots of hugs, lots of cruising, lots of conversation….
I did not eat much. On days that I ate lunch, I would skip dinner. I wanted to save as much as possible so as not to be against the wall. I have lost 15 pounds already, I look like a corpse. There are pingueros and pingueros.
There are the cheap ones who do anybody, even for three bucks, but those are mostly the Palestinians 16 who have never seen 30 bucks in their lives. They have no respect for themselves and are affecting us because then Yumas want to spend a luxury night and pay a misery. But I understand them because some of them arrived in Havana without a penny and needed to make quick money. It happened to me too. I set my own fee upfront because I respect myself. They [foreigners] come looking for affection, caresses—they love to be kissed—and that has a price. By pretending to be [sincerely] affectionate, they are just trying to pay less.
They promise you the moon and then they dump you. Time is money. He is happy with some consumer goods that he considers valuable:. Sometimes I bargain over some clothes in addition to charging some cash. I sell it to them as if I operated an exclusive boutique. This model of success inspired by high levels of consumerism and access to goods and services that are not readily available to the majority of the population awakens in many youngsters the desire to imitate others who, because of their involvement in these activities, boast their exceptional buying power.
Alejandro explains:. I arrived in Havana in at the age of I had studied Italian language because I wanted to work in tourism. Like any other young person, I wanted to go out, have fun. I had friends who were jineteros and they had money and motorcycles, and good clothing, and beautiful women and I wanted to be like them and to have what they had. While pingueros take active part in the economy of pleasure linked to tourism, they also sell clothes and electronics like cell phones that tourists give them in their home towns when they are short of cash.
Likewise in Havana, there is a underground economy that provides bed and board to those coming from the provinces with little money. Alejandro lives in this popular neighbourhood, characterized by a high concentration of people and crammed housing. He described his daily routine to me:. I wake up as soon as my neighbours in the tenement house next door start blasting their music around 10am.
The owner is a toothless old woman who rents rooms to pingueros. People say she used to be a madam in a brothel before the Revolution and that afterwards they tried to rehabilitate her. She sells boxed lunches of pork or pasta that are cheaper than eating out. I hardly go out during the day to save money and avoid the police.
The idea is to pass the time, so I workout, sleep a lot to recover my strength and about 7pm I shower and smother my body in cream and cologne to smell good. Around 10pm, I hit the streets and sometimes I come back or not depending on whom I do. Pingueros have a marked interest in designer labels and make a cult of their bodies using transnational referents that are popularized by global stars from the world of entertainment.
The impact of globalization in Cuba has been felt not only in the rise of an emergent tourism economy that has brought large dividends to some social elites as a result of complex processes of increasing social inequality and decapitalization that affect the majority of the population, but it has also generated an economy of pleasure for gay tourists accessible to all income levels.
Together with a cheap street sex market in Old Havana and El Vedado, there is an exclusive pinguero service that caters to the needs of elegant private parties. These services are featured in catalogues available to moneyed international gay customers. He explains the dynamics of this service:. My fee starts at dollars and I make lots of money in a month.
They call me on my cell and arrange a date. I go to fancy places in Miramar, where there is privacy. It is interesting the way they have to name the performances of these subjects and their symbolic implications. Apparently, pingueros structure their gender negotiation by allotting varying degrees of masculinity to themselves and their paying partners depending on the kind of relationship both establish.
In fact, some of them came to Habana as pimps of their girlfriends before engaging themselves in sexual encounters with foreign tourists men or women. This is the case of Reinier:. She only had one skirt made by her grandmother and a pair of dress shoes that she had to share with her sister, so they had to take turns going out at night. We rented separate rooms at an apartment on K and 17 St in El Vedado at 1. The night of their arrival they went to El Johnny , a discotheque in Miramar:.
She went out with an Italian guy and took him to the rented room in El Vedado. He paid her 70 bucks and she came to my room to show me the booty. She had this rancid smell, and I was so disgusted that I asked her to take a shower. Next day we went shopping. Something similar happened to Alejandro and his girlfriend who shared a similar arrangement. He told me that one of the toughest moments for him was when he chanced upon his girlfriend while out with a male tourist: Both Alejandro and Reinier told me that their lives got complicated when the families of their girlfriends began to torpedo their relationships.
As to Reinier, problems with his in-laws took a different course: They even convinced her to marry a yuma which she finally did. After that, I continued in la lucha on my own until now. I never imagined that I had to sleep with a man, let alone that I was going to make a living out of it.
Everything was strange to me, seeing men kissing. It came as a blow to me until I got used to it. If homosexuality did not exist, I would starve to death. Reinier noted that having sex with men did not change his perception of homosexuality because he sees it as something alien to his inner desires and feelings and above all because his idea about it is associated with embracing an identity and not just about having sex. For Reinier, embracing a homoerotic identity implies a rejection of sex with women and engaging in an exclusive relationship with a man:.
Being a homosexual means something else. You must have a relationship and live with another man. You understand? I like women and at some point I would like to form a family and have children. I have friends who have discovered that side in them while being in la lucha and they have their partners.
Cubans are charged a little less than yumas (foreigners), but these working kids He's not a “male prostitute”; he's just a “guy who works real hard to get heterosexual men engaging in homosexual sex for pay once Cuba is. But as more Cubans get online, an increasing number of men use “it's common to see same-sex couples holding hands and male escorts.
Although Reinier distances himself from homosexuality, he concedes that the homoerotic environment has been fundamental to his performance and survival and that after spending time in those networks he is no longer as judgmental as he once was. I hate kissing men.
Their kissing is rough but I do like effeminate clients because they are softer. However, I must confess that I have felt pleasure at times. I know this is la lucha but I admit that I have felt pleasure. The relationship that pingueros have with their bodies is both complex and contradictory. To others, the body is a place of important self-discovery where they can contrast their notions of gender, sexuality and pleasure. This world has changed my life. I now see homosexuality as something normal.
To some, prejudices are not solely expressed in gender terms, but also in the language of economic competition. Yamel feels a special aversion for transvestites: You can be a homosexual but not a flaming queen.
vingnacharrama.ml Rejection of the feminine seems to structure the discourse of some pingueros. In another moment of our interview, Yamel noted: Women bleed you dry of your money, and of everything, and then once they exhaust you, they beat it. Many of the narratives compiled for this work reveal that there are many different ways in which pingueros self-construct themselves as subjects.
In some cases their practices are associated with the process of hypermasculinization and their sexual-gender configurations are shaped via the reproductions of stereotypes in the binary framework of active-passive within an economy of roles. That is why they try to stay away from pingueros and establish other social networks and connections. Pingueros give a place a bad reputation, so hanging out with them makes you look bad because if they say hi to you in front of a foreigner, I might be seen as bad too, that I befriend delinquents.
They have no ethics. They have a dirty mind.
They even give yumas pills to knock them down and rip them off or to stop them from having a hard on to avoid sex. To me, being a man is having ethics and having sex with another man does not define you as a human being. In fact, I know many homosexuals who are more of a man than many pingueros who think they are big macho men. In this testimony there is also an estrangement from the figure of the pinguero. It might be possible that the research and production of knowledge on this phenomenon have aimed at trying to unify these subjects under the same category even though they have multiple configurations and opinions.
In this regard, and agreeing with Judith Butler, we can be sure that identity is a normative ideal rather than a descriptive feature of experience , Similar evidence has been collected by Carlos Ulises Decena during his field work with Dominican immigrants living in the United States. For them too, the macho man not only implies lack of modernity and less equitable sexual relations, but is perceived as an obstacle to achieve social mobility Everything I have, I owe it to him.
To some of my pinguero informants, the idea of success basically translates into being kept by a foreigner from abroad or leaving the country under their protection. However, the majority of the businesses are not in the hands of the unemployed, but in the hands of certain elites linked to tourism or to people who have received remittances from their families abroad. In a national context where tourism has become a key economic engine and development policies arise from conditions of deepening austerity and reduction, it is not unusual to see economically deprived and educationally disadvantaged youths turning to sex as the sole means of satisfying their basic needs and gaining access to other goods and services.
Other researchers point out that the plantation model established in the Caribbean during the 19th century has been substituted today by tourism because of its long-term impact on local cultures and economies. Until very recently, Cubans—unless they were government functionaries, military or exemplary workers—were not allowed to book rooms in hotels or enjoy their facilities. These prohibitions formed part of an official policy aimed at exerting ideological control and at hiding existing privileges among certain sectors of the population.
This phenomenon is accompanied by processes of racialization, exoticization and hypersexualization Kempadoo, that turn Cuba into an ethnosexual territory Nagel, Although the Cuban government has tried to promote alternative, sex-free tourism models such as health, ecological and academic tourism, it has been unable to subvert global notions of the island as a place for pleasure and sex.
Some studies indicate that tourists who have travelled to Cuba for sex were cheap sex hunters in places like Eastern Europe and Morocco. They valued Cuba as a safer, less violent place where it was less likely to catch sexually transmitted diseases Fosado, So far, I have tried to challenge some of the notions that have presented pingueros as a stable, essentially economic category of sex work linked to sex tourism.
I have avoided a prudish reading of the phenomenon, and tried instead to look into the multiple social, racial, gender and sexual intersections that characterize these subjects. There are still other avenues of analysis open for future projects. For instance, conducting research on the experiences and attitudes of tourists who seek pingueros constitutes one viable path for exploration, one that would shed new light on the multidimensional social world that these subjects construct and inhabit on a daily basis. Sexualities ; 8, Allen, J. Global Studies in Culture and Power. The Repeating Island: The Caribbean and the Postmodern Perspective , Durham: Duke University Press.
Butler, J. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, New York: Cabezas, A. Journal of Women in Culture and Society. Economies of Desire. Sex and Tourism in Cuba and the Dominican Republic. Temple University Press. Decena, C. Durham, NC: Caram and E. La Habana: University Press of Florida, pp. Hodge, D. Holgado, I. Nagel, J. On becoming Cuban. Identity, Nationality and Culture. New York: Harper Collins. Pope, C. Pruitt, D, and S. Sedgwick, E. Epistemology of the Closet. Los Angeles: University of California Press. Sierra, A. Del otro lado del espejo.
Stout, N. Trumbull, C. Wonders, N. Michalowski, Dr Abel Sierra Madero. PhD candidate, New York University. I circumscribe it to the capital because there these groups have a stronger visibility and significance. By homoerotic ambiente, I understand a temporal-spatial dimension for the meeting and interaction of individuals who do not necessarily identify with homosexuality.
These are spaces of cultural diversity which do not exclude people by their sexual orientation or identity. I refer to homoerotic practices as those related to sexual relations or erotic encounters among same-sex people, without considering the existence of a social identity. The idea of ambiente provides a more precise notion of the negotiations taking place between these groups and state institutions with the aim of creating spaces of socialization despite the absence of a collective homosexual, gay or homoerotic consciousness as such.
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